Bosnia and Herzegovina is located in the heart of southeast Europe, the Balkan Peninsula, and covers an area of 51,129 square kilometers and has a population of 3,531,159. Bosnia share its borders with Croatia on the north and west, with Serbia on the east and with Montenegro on the southeast. The coastline that stretches along 24 kilometers to the south, providing land access to the Adriatic Sea in Neum. Bosnia and Herzegovina is largely mountainous, with the Dinaric Alps, which stretch along the western border. To the north is a fertile plain suitable for agriculture, along the border with the River Sava. Central, eastern and north-western parts of the country are rich in forests and Herzegovina, which is located in the south, has Mediterranean climate. Relief of Bosnia and Herzegovina is very different, both in appearance and the age and origin. Most of the terrain is mountainous with different heights while the rest is plain, consisting of parts of the Pannonian Plain, large basins and river valleys, as well as the thin strip of the Adriatic coast. With regard to specific geographical position and relief, the climate of Bosnia and Herzegovina is complex but we can distinguish three types of climate, with more or less clear boundaries, which are medium continental, Mediterranean and on the high altitudes – mountain climate.
Bosnia and Herzegovina has rich and turbulent history. In the first centuries AD, Bosnia and Herzegovina was part of the Roman Empire. Slavs settled in this region in the 7th century, and Serbia and Croatia ruled over some parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the 9th century. With the exception of today’s East Herzegovina during the 10th and 11th centuries, the state government Croatian kingdom, and during the 11th and 12th century, took over Kingdom of Hungary. The medieval Bosnian political units gained independence around 1200 and was an independent kingdom until 1463 when fell under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. The power of the Ottoman Empire survived until 1878, when Bosnia became part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, whose power will take place until 1918 or the beginning of the First World War whose cause was the murder of the Austro-Hungarian heir to the throne in Sarajevo. After the collapse of Austria-Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina became a part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and the Second World War came under the rule of NDH. After the war, Bosnia was part of the Communist Yugoslavia like one of the republics. Bosnia and Herzegovina declared its sovereignty in October 1991, followed by a referendum for separation from Yugoslavia in February 1992. In a referendum, the majority of the population opted for an independent Bosnia and Herzegovina, leading to the outbreak of war in this region. The war lasted from 1992 to 1995 with the signing of the peace agreement in the US city of Dayton. As per this Agreement, Bosnia and Herzegovina is an independent state divided into two entities, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Serbska and the District of Brcko.
Though a relatively small country, Bosnia and Herzegovina has a rich culture that has had a major impact on other countries in the Balkans, and manifested in various fields of human endeavor, including music, literature, film, art and applied art and design and modern media. This country has made two winners of the prestigious Nobel Prize. Capital Sarajevo hosted the 14th Winter Olympic Games, which were not only gathering of young athletes from around the world, but also the games of culture, peace and friendship. If we were looking for an authentic symbol of this country, probably would be a “stecak”, tombstone – an artifact of original Bosnian cult art. Tombstones were first of all resting place of the dead. You can find these tombstones throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina, and in Radimlja near town Stolac they form a unique necropolis of this kind in the world. In addition, Bosnia and Herzegovina keeps a lot of other cultural beauty: the Cathedral church in Sarajevo, one of the largest Orthodox churches in the geographical area of the Balkans, Emperor’s Mosque in Sarajevo, one of the first mosques built in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the first one in Sarajevo, Old Bridge in Mostar , the historic core of the city of Mostar with the old Bridge was inscribed on the world heritage list of UNESCO and the Mehmed pasha Sokolovic Bridge in Visegrad, registered as one of the 100 most endangered world monuments.
Besides the stunning natural scenery and rich culture and tradition, visitors may be more important to know that Bosnia and Herzegovina is a country of extraordinary people. According to the old cliche goes, people make the place, Bosnia and Herzegovina can be proud of its hospitality and treating our guests as if they were family members. And we know that the family is close to the heart.